113 Mp4 ((INSTALL))
First, we found that many of the fires, covering over 450,000 hectares, burned areas recently deforested since 2017 (orange in Base Map). That is a massive area equivalent to over a million acres (or 830,000 American football fields), mostly in the states Amazonas, Rondônia, and Pará.
Second, we found 160,400 hectares of primary forest burned in 2019 (purple in Base Map).* Most of these areas surround deforested lands in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, and were likely pasture or agricultural fires that escaped into the forest.
As far as we know, these are the first precise estimates based on detailed analysis of satellite imagery. Other estimates based solely on fire alerts tend to greatly overestimate burned areas due to their large spatial resolution.
The policy implications of these findings are critically important: national and international focus needs to be on minimizing new deforestation, in addition to fire prevention and management.
That is, we need to recognize that many of the fires are in fact a lagging indicator of previous deforestation, thus to minimize fires we need to minimize deforestation.
For example, one of the leading deforestation drivers in the Brazilian Amazon is cattle ranching (1, 2, 3). What measures can be taken to prevent the further expansion of the ranching frontier?
In addition to the finding of 160,400 hectares of primary forest burned in 2019, we also found: 25,800 hectares of secondary forest burned in 2019;35,640 hectares of primary forest burned in the northern state of Roraima in March 2019 (plus an additional 16,500 hectares of secondary forest.
This work was supported by the following major funders: MacArthur Foundation, International Conservation Fund of Canada (ICFC), Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), Metabolic Studio, and Global Forest Watch Small Grants Fund (WRI).
Manufacturer description: To create optimum image quality, the Leica X pairs an APS-C-Format CMOS Sensor with 16.5 megapixels (effective 16.2 megapixels) with a Summilux 23 mm f/1.7 ASPH lens. Delivering clear, sharp photos from infinity to a close focusing distance of .2 meters, the improved lens design minimizes flare and ghosting effects. Equivalent to the focal length of a 35mm lens on a full frame, 35mm sensor, the 23mm lens on an APS-C sensor allows for classic wide-angle photography. When using the Leica Digiscoping Adapter on the Leica APO-Televid 82 and APO-Televid 65 spotting scopes, the X camera enables wildlife watchers and photographers to create stunning images with a variable focal length from 850 to 3100 mm.
The simplified functionality and new menu layout permits intuitive camera handling and ease in switching from automatic to manual modes. A faster, more precise auto focus ensures the perfect photo is never missed. Capable of capturing full-HD quality video at a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels and 30 full frames per second in MP4 format, the new Leica X provides everything an amateur or professional photographer needs for commercial, small business or family use.
A fusion of highest-quality magnesium and aluminum with premium leather trim, the Leica X body comes in a discreet black version with matching leather trim or in an elegant silver with brown leather trim. An extensive range of technical accessories, bags and cases are available for the Leica X wherever the camera is sold
The Leica X (Typ 113) is a 16.2 megapixel compact camera with an APS-C sized, 23.6x15.8mm CMOS sensor with a 3:2 aspect ratio, image-stabilized Leica Summilux 23mm f/1.7 lens with 10 elements in 8 groups (2 aspheric lens elements) that provides a focal length of 35mm in 35mm terms, HD 1920x1080 video at 30 fps in the MP4 format, and a 3-inch LCD screen with 920,000 pixels and 100% field of view. The X (Typ 113) has both a pop-up flash and a hot shoe, and it offers a full range of advanced controls from manual exposure to manual focus. Other key features of the Leica X (Typ 113) include a sensitivity range of ISO 100-12,500, maximum shutter speed of 1/2000th of a second, JPEG and DNG RAW file support, and a continuous shooting rate of up to 5 frames per second. The recommended retail price of the Leica X (Typ 113) is 1550 / $2295.
The Leica X (Typ 113) is alomst identical to the cheaper X-E camera that was released at the same time, and which we recently reviewed. Consequently, most of the comments that we made about that camera apply equally to the new X (Typ 113) model. The new X (Typ 113) has either a brown / silver colour scheme, or the stealthy all-black version that we tested, with two-thirds of it having a leather texture to aid grip.
The Leica X (Typ 113) has a 16.5 megapixel CMOS chip, boasting an effective 16.2MP. This pumps out a purported 16.1-megapixel effective resolution. The brand new lens is one of the main differences between the X Typ 113 and the X-E, offering a slightly wider 23mm focal length (35mm equivalent in 35mmm terms due to the 1.5x crop factor at play here) but most importantly a much faster maximum aperture of f/1.7 (versus f/2.8 on the X-E). This has resulted in a signifcantly bigger lens barrel that makes the camera less pocketable than before, but the f/1.7 aperture opens up a lot of extra creative possibilites. There is the continued ability to incrementally alter the aperture from f/1.7 to f/16 via the dedicated top plate dial.
As a result, and this was also true of the X-E, the X (Typ 113)'s looks mirror its maker's rangefinder cameras, such as the M9. As well as two rather stiff top plate dials via which manual adjustments can be made to shutter speed (from 30 seconds to 1/2000th of a sec) and the aforementioned aperture dial, there is a disc-shaped flash neatly sunk into the top plate. Spring-loaded, it leaps forth with a thumb-shove of the manual catch provided top left of the back plate, its minimalist appearance adding to the camera's cachet of cool.
Naturally there is a vacant hotshoe for an accessory flash too, to which can alternatively be attached Leica's lovely optical 'Bright Line' viewfinder for around 269 or an EVF 2 electronic viewfinder if preferred, which will set you back around 360. Yes, admittedly that last price would buy you a high-end compact with a 1/2.3-inch sensor outright, but such a camera is not quite in the X (Typ 113)'s rarified class.
Another big upgrade from the the X-E is that the X (Typ 11) now offers a video mode - Full HD 1920x1080 pixels at 30fps in the MP4 format, to be precise, stopped and started by a new one-touch movie record button on the top of the camera, with built-in stabilisation and an integrated HDMI-out port for playback on an external device.
the size of the back plate LCD has also been upgraded to 3-inches, plus the resolution - in the absence of any provided viewfinder out of the box - is now a much more respectable 920k pixels, bringing the X (Typ 113) up to date with comparable cameras.
The Leica X (Typ 113) comes with a two-year warranty as opposed to the usual one, a year's accidental damage cover, and a download option for Adobe Lightroom, with the code provided once the product has been registered.
As with the X-E, the fact that we don't have a zoom to play with here prompts a more considered approach to picture taking, in that the photographer has to physically step forward or back to alter what's included in the frame. You also have to get up close to and interact with your subjects; a camera for surreptitious candids this is not. Leica claims that the 23mm lens was chosen because it's a classic length for photojournalism, with the minimum focus distance now at an improved 20cm, making the camera slightly better suited to macro shots.
The front of the Leica X (Typ 113) is adorned with the (in)famous red Leica badge and logo which stands out due its position top left of the lens, with a detachable hard plastic clip-on cap provided as protection for that renowned glass.
Just right of the badge, if viewing the camera front-on, and nudging closer to the lens surround, is a small porthole containing the traditional AF assist/self timer lamp. Between the top and bottom of the faceplate there is also a wide band of leather padding that is largely there for show than serving as a practical form of grip. In fact there is nothing resembling a traditional handgrip provided with the camera at all, though there is an optional accessory grip for just under 100. Having said that, the solidity and weight of the X (Typ 113)'s build - a much heavier than average for a compact 486g with battery - means that it didn't feel like the Leica would suddenly slip from our grasp at any point.
There's now a generously sized focusing ring with a ridged edge and clear distance markings from 0.2cms to infinity. Moving the focusing ring on the lens from MF to the AF setting activates the fast and quiet auto-focus system. Though the auto focus occasionally hunts to find a target, overall it's quick to lock onto and determine focus and exposure. The front part of the lens can be be unscrewed for the threading on of attachments.
The X (Typ 113)'s top plate meanwhile features most of the attributes we've already touched on, such as the pop up flash, hotshoe offering full compatibility with the Leica SF 24D and SF 58 system flash units, aperture and shutter speed dials, plus the on/off switch that ergonomically encircles the shutter release button. This isn't just a power switch however as the two 'on' settings provided here directly alternate between single shot ('S') and continuous shooting ('C') options (3fps or 5fps to a maximum 7 shots) - so you've always got these drive modes literally at the tip of your forefinger.
Flick the switch to 'S' or 'C' setting and the Leica readies itself for action in 1-2 seconds. Squeeze the shutter release button in single shot mode to take a maximum resolution 'Super Fine' JPEG and the screen instantly displays the resultant image, much quicker than the X-E. Take a top quality JPEG and Leica's 'DNG' file version of Raw and the camera isn't any noticeably slower however, plus the advantage of the DNG format is that it can be opened directly by Photoshop without specialist conversion software required. 041b061a72