What You Need to Know About Moral Life Pojman Pdf 18: A Review and Analysis of an Ethics and Literature Reader
Moral Life Pojman Pdf 18: A Review of an Ethical Anthology
Have you ever wondered what makes an action right or wrong? How do you decide what to do in difficult situations? What are the values and principles that guide your life? If you are interested in these questions, then you might want to read Moral Life Pojman Pdf 18, a book that explores ethical theory and practice through literature and philosophy.
Moral Life Pojman Pdf 18
Moral Life Pojman Pdf 18 is an introductory reader in ethics and literature that brings together an extensive and varied collection of 87 classical and contemporary readings on ethical theory and practice. The book is edited by Louis P. Pojman, a professor of philosophy at the United States Military Academy at West Point. Pojman uses literary works to enliven and make concrete the ethical theory or applied issues addressed in each chapter. Literary works by Hugo, Hawthorne, Melville, Tolstoy, Ibsen, Huxley, Orwell, Camus, LeGuin, Styron, and many others lead students into philosophical concepts and issues such as relativism, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, the meaning of life, freedom, sex, love and marriage, and environmental ethics. Once introduced, these topics are developed further through readings by philosophers including Aristotle, Sartre, Bernard Williams, Jane English, and Thomas E. Hill Jr.
The book is divided into four parts: The Nature of Morality: Good and Evil; Moral Theories and Moral Character; Moral Issues; and Applied Ethics: Moral Problems. Each part consists of several chapters that cover a specific theme or topic related to ethics. Each chapter begins with an introduction by Pojman that provides an overview of the theme or topic, a biographical sketch of each author, an abstract of each reading selection, and some study questions for further reflection. The book also features insightful part introductions that connect the chapters within each part.
In this review, we will briefly summarize each part of the book and highlight some of the main points and arguments made by the authors. We will also evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the book as a whole.
Part I: The Nature of Morality: Good and Evil
The first part of the book deals with the fundamental questions of ethics: What is morality? What is its purpose? How do we define good and evil? Is morality relative or objective? The part consists of three chapters that explore these questions from different perspectives.
The first chapter, What Is the Purpose of Morality?, examines the nature and function of morality in human life. It begins with a moral allegory by William Golding, Lord of the Flies, which depicts the breakdown of civilization and morality among a group of boys stranded on an island. Pojman then reflects on the moral lessons of the story and argues that morality is essential for human survival and flourishing. He contrasts two views of morality: the Hobbesian view that morality is a social contract to avoid chaos and violence, and the Aristotelian view that morality is a natural and rational activity that leads to happiness and virtue.
The second chapter, Good and Evil, explores the origin and meaning of good and evil in human experience. It begins with a story by Herman Melville, Billy Budd, which illustrates the problem of evil and injustice in a naval setting. Pojman then discusses various philosophical approaches to the problem of evil, such as the free will defense, the soul-making defense, and the skeptical theism defense. He also considers the views of Friedrich Nietzsche, who challenges the traditional notions of good and evil and proposes a new morality based on power and will. Pojman criticizes Nietzsche's view as nihilistic and dangerous, and defends a naturalistic account of good and evil based on human needs and desires.
The third chapter, Is Everything Relative?, addresses the question of whether morality is relative or objective. It begins with a story by Henrick Ibsen, The Enemy of the People, which shows the conflict between a doctor who discovers a public health hazard and the majority who oppose him. Pojman then examines the arguments for and against moral relativism, the view that moral judgments are relative to cultures or individuals. He rejects moral relativism as self-contradictory, illogical, and immoral, and argues for moral objectivism, the view that there are universal moral standards that apply to all people.
Part II: Moral Theories and Moral Character
The second part of the book deals with the main moral theories and how they differ in their approaches to ethics. It also explores the role of virtues and vices in shaping our moral character. The part consists of four chapters that cover different types of moral theories.
The fourth chapter, Utilitarianism, introduces the most influential consequentialist theory of ethics, which holds that an action is right if it produces the best consequences for everyone affected by it. It begins with a story by Ursula Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas, which presents a utopian society that depends on the suffering of one child. Pojman then explains the basic principles of utilitarianism as formulated by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. He also considers some objections to utilitarianism, such as its disregard for individual rights, justice, integrity, and happiness. He concludes that utilitarianism is a useful but incomplete theory that needs to be supplemented by other considerations.
The fifth chapter, Deontological Ethics, introduces the most influential non-consequentialist theory of ethics, which holds that an action is right if it conforms to a moral duty or rule regardless of its consequences. It begins with a story by Ambrose Bierce, A Horseman in the Sky, which depicts a soldier who faces a dilemma between his duty to his country and his love for his father. Pojman then explains the basic principles of deontological ethics as formulated by Immanuel Kant and W.D. Ross. He also considers some objections to deontological ethics, such as its rigidity, formalism, irrationality, and emptiness. He concludes that deontological ethics is a valuable but limited theory that needs to be balanced by other factors.
The sixth chapter, Virtue Ethics, introduces an alternative approach to ethics that focuses on the character and habits of the moral agent rather than on the actions or consequences. It begins with a story by Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Great Stone Face, which illustrates how a young boy develops virtue by imitating an ideal model. Pojman then explains the basic principles of virtue ethics as formulated by Aristotle and Bernard Mayo. He also considers some criticisms of virtue ethics, such as its relativism, elitism, vagueness, and irrelevance. He concludes that virtue ethics is an important but insufficient theory that needs to be integrated with other theories.
The seventh chapter, Virtues and Vices, examines some specific virtues and vices that affect our moral life. It begins with a story by Leo Tolstoy, How Much Land Does a Man Need?, which shows how greed can ruin one's life. Pojman then discusses various virtues and vices related to different aspects of human existence: gratitude 71b2f0854b