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BA - More Lukas Stories.mp4

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BA - More Lukas Stories.mp4

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The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH) is a private 501(c)(3) natural history museum on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City.[4] In Theodore Roosevelt Park, across the street from Central Park, the museum complex comprises 26 interconnected buildings housing 45 permanent exhibition halls, in addition to a planetarium and a library. The museum collections contain over 34 million specimens[5] of plants, animals, fungi, fossils, minerals, rocks, meteorites, human remains, and human cultural artifacts, as well as specialized collections for frozen tissue and genomic and astrophysical data, of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time. The museum occupies more than 210^6 sq ft (190,000 m2). AMNH has a full-time scientific staff of 225, sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year,[6] and averages about five million visits annually.[7]

The naturalist Dr. Albert S. Bickmore devised the idea for the American Museum of Natural History in 1861.[9] At the time, he was studying in Cambridge, Massachusetts, at Louis Agassiz's Museum of Comparative Zoology.[9][10] Observing that many European natural history museums were in populous cities, Bickmore wrote in a biography: "Now New York is our city of greatest wealth and therefore probably the best location for the future museum of natural history for our whole land."[9] For several years, Bickmore lobbied for the establishment of a natural history museum in New York.[11] Upon the end of the American Civil War, Bickmore asked numerous prominent New Yorkers, such as William E. Dodge Jr., to sponsor his museum.[12][13] Although Dodge himself could not fund the museum at the time, he introduced the naturalist to Theodore Roosevelt Sr., the father of future U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt.[12][14]

Calls for a natural history museum increased after Barnum's American Museum burned down in 1868.[12] Eighteen prominent New Yorkers wrote a letter to the Central Park Commission that December, requesting the creation of a natural history museum in Central Park.[10][15][16] Central Park commissioner Andrew Haswell Green indicated his support for the project in January 1869.[16][15] A board of trustees was created for the museum. The next month, Bickmore and Joseph Hodges Choate drafted a charter for the museum, which the board of trustees approved without any changes. It was in this charter that the "American Museum of Natural History" name was first used.[17] Bickmore said he wanted the museum's name to reflect his "expectation that our museum will ultimately become the leading institution of its kind in our country", similar to the British Museum.[17] Before the museum was established, Bickmore needed to secure approval from Boss Tweed, leader of the powerful and corrupt Tammany Hall political organization. The legislation to establish the American Museum of Natural History had to be signed by John Thompson Hoffman, the governor of New York, who was associated with Tweed.[18]

Hoffman signed the legislation creating the museum on April 6, 1869,[19][20] with John David Wolfe as its first president.[21][a] Subsequently, the chairman of the AMNH's executive committee asked Green if the museum could use the top two stories of Central Park's Arsenal, and Green approved the request in January 1870.[20] Insect specimens were placed on the lower level of the Arsenal,[22] while stones, fossils, mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles were placed on the upper level.[23] The museum opened within the Arsenal on May 22, 1871.[23][24] The AMNH became popular in the following years. The Arsenal location had 856,773 visitors in the first nine months of 1876 alone, more than the British Museum had recorded for all of 1874.[25]

In 2014, the museum published plans for a $325 million, 195,000 sq ft (18,100 m2) annex, the Richard Gilder Center for Science, Education, and Innovation, on the Columbus Avenue side.[61] Designed by Studio Gang, Higgins Quasebarth & Partners and landscape architects Reed Hilderbrand, the new building's pink Milford granite facade will have a textural, curvilinear design inspired by natural topographical elements showcased in the museum, including "geological strata, glacier-gouged caves, curving canyons, and blocks of glacial ice," as a striking contrast to the museum's predominance of High Victorian Gothic, Richardson Romanesque and Beaux Arts architectural styles. The interior itself would contain a new entrance from Columbus Avenue north of 79th Street; a multiple-story storage structure containing specimens and objects; rooms to display these objects; an insect hall; an "interpretive" "wayfinding wall", and a theater.[37][62] This expansion was originally supposed to be north of the existing museum, occupying parts of Theodore Roosevelt Park. The expansion was relocated to the west side of the existing museum, and its footprint was reduced in size, due to opposition to construction in the park. The annex would instead replace three existing buildings along Columbus Avenue's east side, with more than 30 connections to the existing museum, and it would be six stories high, the same height as the existing buildings. The plans for the expansion were scrutinized by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.[37] On October 11, 2016, the Landmarks Preservation Commission unanimously approved the expansion. Construction of the Gilder Center, which was expected to break ground the next year following design development and Environmental Impact Statement stages, would entail demolition of three museum buildings built between 1874 and 1935.[62] The museum formally filed plans to construct the expansion in August 2017,[63] but due to community opposition, construction did not start until June 2019. The project is expected to be complete by 2022.[64][65]

The Milstein Hall of Ocean Life is in the southeastern quadrant of the first floor, west of the Hall of Biodiversity.[87] It focuses on marine biology, botany and marine conservation. The center of the hall contains a 94 ft (29 m)-long blue whale model.[127] The upper level of the hall exhibits the vast array of ecosystems present in the ocean. Dioramas compare and contrast the life in these different settings including polar seas, kelp forests, mangroves, coral reefs and the bathypelagic. It attempts to show how vast and varied the oceans are while encouraging common themes throughout.[128] The lower half of the hall consists of 15 large dioramas of larger marine organisms.[129] It is on this level that the famous "Squid and the Whale" diorama sits, depicting a hypothetical fight between the two creatures.[128] Other notable exhibits in this hall include the two-level Andros Coral Reef Diorama.[129][130] Upper dioramas are smaller versions of the ecosystems when the bottom versions are much bigger and more life like.

In 1910, museum president Henry F. Osborn proposed the construction of a large building in the museum's southeast courtyard to house a new Hall of Ocean Life in which "models and skeletons of whales" would be exhibited.[131] The hall opened in 1924[129] and was renovated in 1962.[111] In 1969, a renovation gave the hall a more explicit focus on oceanic megafauna, including the addition of a lifelike blue whale model to replace a popular steel and papier-mâché whale model that had hung in the Biology of Mammals hall. Richard Van Gelder oversaw the creation of the hall in its current incarnation.[131] The hall was renovated once again in 2003, this time with environmentalism and conservation being the main focal points, and was renamed after developer Paul Milstein and AMNH board member Irma Milstein. The 2003 renovation included refurbishment of the famous blue whale, suspended high above the 19,000 sq ft (1,800 m2) exhibit floor; updates to the 1930s and 1960s dioramas; and electronic displays.[112] The whale's flukes and fins were readjusted, a navel was added, and it was repainted from a dull gray to various rich shades of blue.

At the time of its opening, the Hall of Northwest Coast Indians was one of four halls dedicated to the native peoples of United States and Canada. It was originally organized in two sections, the first being a general area pertaining to all peoples of the region and the second a specialized area divided by tribe. This was a point of contention for Boas who wanted all artifacts in the hall to be associated with the proper tribe (much like it is currently organized), eventually leading to the dissolution of Boas's relationship with the museum.[154][159] In May 2022, the hall reopened after a five-year, $19 million renovation, with more than 1,000 artifacts on view. The new display includes work from contemporary artists such as Greg Colfax KlaWayHee and Robert Davidson.[160][161]

The hall also contains extra-solar nanodiamonds (diamonds with dimensions on the nanometer level) more than 5 billion years old. These were extracted from a meteorite sample through chemical means, and they are so small that a quadrillion of these fit into a volume smaller than a cubic centimeter.[173]

Other areas of the museum contain repositories of life from the past. The Whale Bone Storage Room is a cavernous space in which powerful winches come down from the ceiling to move the giant fossil bones about. The museum attic upstairs includes even more storage facilities, such as the Elephant Room, while the tusk vault and boar vault are downstairs from the attic.[183]

To further examine this hypothesis within the scope of the present study, its comparability to our previous work [18] had to be established first. Here, the allometric comparison of the employed experimental leech stocks revealed that the animals neither differed in their average body mass nor in their average maximum sucker areas. Furthermore, the high-speed video-based analyses of both the anterior and posterior attachment and detachment processes revealed that leeches performed spatially identical movement patterns across all tested substrates in both studies [18]. However, the penetration of the sucker margins into pores on air-permeable substrates has been documented for the first time in the present work (figure 2c4,c5,d4,d5,f4,f5). Although this is solely caused by the fact that preliminary experiments had only focussed on air-tight substrates [18]. On the other hand, substrate-specific temporal differences in the context of the anterior and posterior attachment and detachment processes of H. verbana still need to be analysed in future experiments. However, we have experienced substrate-specific differences in the duration of the corresponding search phases, i.e. the time duration before the start of each new attachment event (LK, L-LT, TK, 2019 personal observations). Here, we share the observations published in [56] that leeches prefer smooth compared to textured substrates for their attachment. Eventually, both the allometric and the motion analyses highlight the general comparability of the two experimental leech stocks, as well as the comparability of the conclusions drawn from other experiments, in which they have been employed. 041b061a72


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